Update April 21, 2017 - There is an active pull request at Metasploit master which adds DoublePulsar infection detection to this module.During the first Shadow Brokers leak, my colleagues at RiskSense and I reverse engineered and improved the EXTRABACON exploit, which I wrote a feature about for PenTest Magazine. Last Friday, Shadow Brokers leaked FuzzBunch, a Metasploit-like attack framework that hosts a number of Windows exploits not previously seen. Microsoft's official response says these exploits were fixed up in MS17-010, released in mid-March.
Yet again I find myself tangled up in the latest Shadow Brokers leak. I actually wrote a scanner to detect MS17-010 about 2-3 weeks prior to the leak, judging by the date on my initial pull request to Metasploit master. William Vu, of Rapid7 (and whom coincidentally I met in person the day of the leak), added some improvements as well. It was pulled into the master branch on the day of the leak. This module can be used to scan a network range (RHOSTS) and detect if the patch is missing or not.
Module Information Page
Module Source Code
My scanner module connects to the IPC$ tree and attempts a PeekNamedPipe transaction on FID 0. If the status returned is "STATUS_INSUFF_SERVER_RESOURCES", the machine does not have the MS17-010 patch. After the patch, Win10 returns "STATUS_ACCESS_DENIED" and other Windows versions "STATUS_INVALID_HANDLE". In case none of these are detected, the module says it was not able to detect the patch level (I haven't seen this in practice).
IPC$ is the "InterProcess Communication" share, which generally does not require valid SMB credentials in default server configurations. Thus this module can usually be done as an unauthed scan, as it can log on as the user "\" and connect to IPC$.
This is the most important patch for Windows in almost a decade, as it fixes several remote vulnerabilities for which there are now public exploits (EternalBlue, EternalRomance, and EternalSynergy).
These are highly complex exploits, but the FuzzBunch framework essentially makes the process as easy as point and shoot. EternalRomance does a ridiculous amount of "grooming", aka remote heap feng shui. In the case of EternalBlue, it spawns numerous threads and simultaneously exploits SMBv1 and SMBv2, and seems to talk Cairo, an undocumented SMB LanMan alternative (only known because of the NT4 source code leaks). I haven't gotten around to looking at EternalSynergy yet.
I am curious to learn more, but have too many side projects at the moment to spend my full efforts investigating further. And unlike EXTRABACON, I don't see any "obvious" improvements other than I would like to see an open source version.